As trade expanded, English became increasingly the language of commerce and the law.
Edmund Gamage Rector of Coychurch and son of Edward Gamage of Treoes, described the language used locally as:
“the language is partly English and partly Welsh, our trading being for the most part with Somer and Devon shires, we spoil our Welsh”.
Passengers as well as commodities were transported to the West Country on boats from the Glamorgan creeks. The toll of three pence per passenger to and from Wales was payable at Porlock or Minehead. There was a reported court case in Bristol on 27th July 1646 which included the following:
“John Morgan of Bridgend in the County of Glamorgan husbandman deposeth upon his oathe…That he was present in the companie upon Friday last in the afternoon at the signe of the Phoenix in Baldwwins streete Bristoll together with John Baughe of Bristoll whitetawer and one James Llewellin of Bridgend glover, which said James had then a parcel of rawe Calveskinnes lyng aboard the barque of Newton at the Backe in Bristoll and heard the said Baughe and Llewellin bargaining for the said skines. And in conclusion they agreed for seven shillings the dozen and did shake hands upon the agreement. And Mr Baughe offered him earnest but Llewellin received none but they agreed that the next morning they would meet againe to deliver the goods and receive the monie(s)…“.
This passage shows the changing relationship between the Welsh and English, that they could communicate and trade with each other. It also highlights the early Anglicisation of the Welsh language in the south of Glamorgan.
The following excerpts from the West Glamorgan Archive Services give an insight into who owned what property, its value and the growing importance of certain trades such as millers and weavers.
The Jenkins Estate held the deeds of properties in Llangan, one of which was for 100 years, dating from the 25th March 1778 for three shillings and five pence annual rent.
The Right Honourable Lady Charlotte Edwin of St. Georges, Hanover Square, Middlesex, widow – to John David of Coity, Breeches maker – owned a piece of land on Treoes Moor called Gwain Treoes, which was in the occupation of John Rosser, also a ruined tucking mill and pieces of rough ground called the Hammers and Tir-y-Pandy, and also lands called Y Cogwell situated near to Goston Village (Treoes).
Tucking is a step in woollen cloth making which involves the cleansing of cloth to eliminate oils, dirt and other impurities, making it thicker. The Welsh word for a Tucking Mill is Pandy, hence Tir-y-Pandy, Land of the Tucking Mill. In these mills the cloth was beaten with wooden hammers.