History – The Tudors and Stuarts

The powerful Turberville family were based in Tytheston, but their wealth was greatly enhanced when they came into possession of Penlline Castle and its Manor by way of marriage.

Tomkin Tuberville married Lucy, daughter and co-heiress of the Norris family who held the Lordship of Penlline. This united the two large estates of Tytheston and Penlline

 Penlline Castle, built on a high ridge
Penlline Castle, built on a high ridge

Their eldest son,  John Turberville, inherited the combined Tytheston and Penlline, but he allowed his younger brother Jenkin to remain in Penlline.  When John died in 1533 his daughter Gwenllian, who was married to Walter Lougher, claimed her inheritance of Penlline Castle, but Christopher Turberville, the son of Jenkin Turberville and resident at Penlline, challenged Gwenllian’s claim. This caused a major rift between the Lougher and Tuberville family.

Watkin Lougher enlisted the help of his two sons-in-law Robert Stradling and his illegitimate brother, also Robert Stradling, both sons of Sir Edward Stradling. With 100 armed men they seized Tytheston and set Penlline ablaze.

Christopher Turberville fled from the flames receiving a great pellet of lead through the hose, which had it entered his thigh would have murdered him”. A servant was less fortunate and was killed. 

Robert Stradling, who resided in Treoes, attended the Star Chamber proceedings in 1527 and described to the court the:

riotous and forceful manner in which Christopher Turberville , accompanied by about 25 riotous persons armed with longbows, arrows and other weapons tried to take possession of the Manor of Penllyn , when he countered claimed to ownership by his cousin – the daughter of John Turberville.”

The matter was eventually resolved by the courts. The first decision of the courts on June 19th 1535 gave the reversion of the whole property, in default of heirs, to the survivor of the two cousins, i.e. Christopher Turberville and Gwenllian Lougher.  It ordered all original deeds to be held in a locked box in Neath Abbey.

Eleven years later, the Abbey, having been twice dissolved and with Gwenllian now widowed, a final award was made on 20th June 1546 as follows:

To Christopher Turberville:The manors of Penlline, North Cornelly, Newcastle, Kenfig, Ogmore with manor of Llangan and Court-y-Gwilliam. 

To Gwenllian :- All the lands of her mother, Alice , reversion of the fourth part of West Orchard then held by Margaret Haws. Gwenllian and her son Richard:-Tytheston, Laleston and Merthyr Mawr, the reversion of the manor of Newton Nottage with 38 acres at Wick.

Named among the residents of Treoes around this time were :

  • Margaret Stradling a widow who died in 1667
  • Morgan John described as an Elder, who died in 1670
  • Edward Gamage described as a Gent who died in 1671
  • William Stradlinge a Gent
  • Phillip Powell a Yeoman.

The Stradlings were also a staunch Catholic family. No. 3 Sunnyside has a priest hole, often found in the homes of Catholics at that time so it is possible that this was the home of the Stradling family of Treoes.

Many of the houses in the village were little more than wooden huts erected on the understanding that if they could build a one up- one down building overnight, then they had the right of undisturbed possession.  This was indeed the case if a house was erected by a squatter overnight on waste or common ground, then he had the right of undisturbed possession,  

The Erection of Cottages Act 1588 dealt with this by prohibiting the building of a cottage without 4 acres assigned to it of the freehold land belonging to the person responsible for its construction.  In 1601 an act was passed that gave churchwardens and overseers’ permission to allow the building of such dwellings for the poor, with the consent of the lord of the Manor.  


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